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Science as a Process by David L. Hull download in ePub, pdf, iPad

The first step in

The prediction can also be statistical and deal only with probabilities. For example, Newton's laws explained thousands of years of scientific observations of the planets almost perfectly. Other scientists may start their own research and enter the process at any stage.

Objects that share a given characteristic can be said to belong to the same set. In both cases the event was the same but different inferences about the cause of the event would likely lead to very different responses.

The scientific method is of necessity also an expression of an opposition to claims that e. In most instances we should seek to classify on the basis of traits that are essential to the idea of the set. By definition, predictions must also be testable.

This demonstrates a use of photography

The first step in understanding such a mystery system would be to observe it as objectively as possible with the goal being to acquire the data base necessary to develop predictions. This demonstrates a use of photography as an experimental tool in science. The nature of the skill of classification is two fold. This is a very common function and is influenced by culture and personal theories of nature. Hypothesizing Hypothesizing is, again, an intrinsic and creative mental process rather than a more straight forward and obvious behavior.

For example, the population might be people with a particular disease. Some journals request that the experimenter provide lists of possible peer reviewers, especially if the field is highly specialized. This means that the more characteristic a trait is of a particular system the closer the kinship of those sharing the trait.

The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out. Nonetheless, the cycle of formulating hypotheses, testing and analyzing the results, and formulating new hypotheses, will resemble the cycle described below. Evidence from other scientists and experience are frequently incorporated at any stage in the process. The nature of the skill of predicting is to be able to identify a trend in a body of data and then to project that trend in a way that can be tested. Characterizations The scientific method depends upon increasingly sophisticated characterizations of the subjects of investigation.