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Chemical Phosphorylation Matheis and Whitaker have reviewed methods to chemically phos- phorylate food proteins. The substrate for this enzyme, acetyl phosphate, should be readily available, since Lewis, Haynie, and Whitesides have devel- oped a method of producing this compound at low cost.

The ammonia was from nonenzymatic deamidation of free glutamine and deamination of certain free amino acids in the hydrolyzates. The reactor system would be fed acetyl phosphate continuously and the protein would be circulated in a closed loop until phosphorylation was complete.

Physical and clinical implications. Protein kinases and protein kinase substrates. While very few mechanisms for enzymatic deamidation have been reported in the literature, pathways of nonenzymatic deamidation have been extensively investigated.

Primary structure of bovine caseins. Based on this information, mammary gland protein kinase should be evaluated for possible phosphorylation of soy protein. Functional properties of enzymatically phospho- rylated soybean proteins. Nonenzymatic covalent posttranslational modification of pro- tein in vivo.

We hope this review has pointed

Emulsifying and foaming properties of the proteins were increased by treatment with immobilized chymotrypsin. Effects of phosphorylation on emulsifying and foaming properties and digestibility of yeast protein. Enzymatic phosphorylation of soybean proteins by protein kinase. Primary steps of allosteric regulation. The phosphorylated yeast protein showed improvement in emulsifying activity and emulsion stability, and produced stable but weak foams at neutral pH.

We hope this review has pointed out both the opportunities and the pitfalls of developing a protein deamidation or phosphorylation process for the food industry. At alkaline and neutral pH's, deamidation of asparagine Asn residues was reported to involve the formation of an intramolecular cyclic imide intermediate Fig. In New Protein Foods, vol. Chemical and enzymatic modification of plant proteins.

Imides form asparagine and glutamine. In Advances in Protein Chemistry, vol. Enzymatic deamidation using commercial food-grade prot eases appears to be a straightforward and cost effective process for producing modified food proteins. Deamidafion by Profeases Kato et al. Food scientists are beginning to recognize the potential of protein deamidation, and more reports are available in recent years on studies of both chemical and enzymatic deamidation.

At alkaline and

Enzymatic phosphorylation of soybean pro- teins. Improvement of the functionalities of soy protein isolate through chemical phosphorylation. Conformational changes and functional properties of acid-modified soy protein. The following discussion will be limited to these two top- ics. Isolation and characterization of a chromatin-associated protein kinase from soybean.