Academic > Chemistry > Download, free read

Concise Physical Chemistry by Donald W. Rogers download in ePub, pdf, iPad

Without such catalysts, the polymerization process would be very slow in certain cases. Other industries such as those involved in the manufacture of textiles, rubber, paper, and packaging materials are built upon polymer chemistry. Such a simple arithmetic relationship is valid for nearly all gases at room temperature and at pressures equal to or less than one atmosphere. Plastics are a prime example, as are many drugs and agricultural chemicals. Many of the most interesting developments in inorganic chemistry bridge the gap with other disciplines.

The detection of iron in a mixture of metals, or in a compound such as magnetite, is a branch of analytical chemistry called qualitative analysis. There is hope that ceramics will one day replace steel in components of internal-combustion engines. Organic chemistry is the largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistry. Industrial chemistry The manufacture, sale, and distribution of chemical products is one of the cornerstones of a developed country. Today, more than are known.

Newer instruments are more accurate and faster and are employed widely in the areas of environmental and medicinal chemistry. Some very simple qualitative tests reveal the presence of specific chemical elements in even smaller amounts. The identification of pure substances and the analysis of chemical mixtures enable all other chemical disciplines to flourish. The oldest of these fields is physical chemistry, which seeks to measure, correlate, and explain the quantitative aspects of chemical processes. Photochemistry is a specialty that investigates the interaction of light with matter.

The importance of analytical chemistry hasMeasurement of the actual amount of

Its discovery illustrates the unpredictability of chemistry, for fundamental discoveries can still be made with simple equipment and inexpensive materials. Ceramics are materials composed of inorganic elements combined with oxygen. Such rapid rates of reaction are possible only through the intermediary action of biomolecules called enzymes. It examines the properties of chemical surfaces, relying heavily on instruments that can provide a chemical profile of such surfaces.

The importance of analytical chemistry has never been greater than it is today. Measurement of the actual amount of a certain substance in a compound or mixture is termed quantitative analysis. For centuries ceramic objects have been made by strongly heating a vessel formed from a paste of powdered minerals.

Electrochemistry investigates the interrelationship of electric current and chemical change. Subsequent work has shown that the relationship loses its validity at higher pressures, but more complicated expressions that more accurately match experimental results can be derived. The new products and processes that are discovered in such laboratories are often patented and become a source of profit for the company funding the research.